Jurisdictional boundaries [3][4]

States vary in how each sets the basic playing field for juvenile justice with lower and upper age boundaries. State legislatures further create a range of complex exceptions for transfer to criminal court based on case-by-case, age and offense specifics.

  • Delinquency age boundaries 2016

    • Upper age

      16 years old

    • Lower age

      None specified

    • Extended age

      20 years old

  • Transfer provisions 2015

    Transfer pathways
    • Discretionary waiver
    • Presumptive waiver
    • Mandatory waiver
    • Statutory exclusion
    • Once/always adult
    • Prosecutor discretion
    Mitigating provisions
    • Reverse waiver (remand)
    • Juvenile blended sentencing
    • Criminal blended sentencing
  • Transfer trends


Juvenile defense [5]

Much is at stake in a juvenile court action for delinquency, and successful outcomes are influenced by a family's ability to retain effective counsel early-on and retain them until a permanent resolution to all aspects of the legal matter is resolved.

  • Organization structure 2013

    Organized at the state level

  • Waiver of counsel 2014

    Factors for consideration in juvenile justice statutes:

    • Age

    • Crime

    • Hearing

    • Placement

  • Indigency 2013

    Indigency is not determined legislatively

  • Training 2013

    No juvenile statute requirement for specialized juvenile training.

Racial/ethnic fairness [1][2][6]

Youth of color are overrepresented in many aspects of the juvenile justice system, from arrest to court referral and confinement. Thus a core requirement of federal juvenile justice policy requires each state to identify where disparities may exist.

  • Indicator data 2015

    Does publish indicator data. Publishes annual indicator data only.

  • DMC coordinators 2016

    Full-time state-level DMC coordinator

  • Tribal delinquency jurisdiction 2016

    Shared with: Federal

  • Monitoring data

    • N/A: Insufficient data to compute arrest rates
    • * Rates used to compute ratio based on fewer than 10 observations
    • † White detained rate is 0

Juvenile court

Each state has established a court with juvenile jurisdiction to address the law violating conduct of youth. Explore the structural and procedural differences.

  • Purpose clauses 2016

    • No clause

    • Parens patriae

    • Due process era

    • Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ)

    • Developmental Approach

  • Intake and diversion 2016

    Initial intake and diversion decision is at the discretion of the Court Intake Officer (JPO) and no statutory time limit/s for diversion exist.

  • Courtroom shackling 2015

    No statewide requirement

  • Competency 2015

    • No juvenile standard

    • Juvenile standard is the adult standard

    • Juvenile justice standard exists

    • JJ standard includes developmental immaturity

  • Sex offense registry 2015


Juvenile justice services [7]

Every state has a set of laws establishing a system of juvenile courts and a corresponding intervention system commonly referred to as juvenile justice services. The different frameworks effectively create 51 distinctly different juvenile justice systems.

  • Organization structure 2014

    • Overall

      Mostly state operated

    • Detention

      Locally operated

    • Probation

      Mostly state operated

    • Reentry

      State operated

  • Corrections agency 2015

    • Independent juvenile corrections agency

    • Family/child welfare agency or division

    • Broad human services agency

    • Adult corrections agency or division

  • Solitary confinement 2016

    • Prohibits punitive confinement

    • Limits punitive confinement

    • No limits on punitive confinement

    • Did not respond

  • Release decision 2016

    • Agency

    • Court

    • Parole board

    • Agency and court

  • EBP support center 2014

    Does not have a support center or collaboratives dedicated to coordinating activities around implementing, evaluating, and sustaining EBPs.

  • Statewide risk assessment 2014

    Has statewide risk assessment.
    Risk assessment tool used: Missouri Juvenile Offender Risk/Needs Assessment and Classification System

  • Mental health screening 2014

    Required in the following services:

    • Secure detention

    • Probation

    • Corrections

  • Recidivism indicators 2016

    • Study populations: Court action
    • Re-offense events: Court action
    • Follow-up periods: 12 months with adult systems reporting

Status offense issues [8]

A wide range of non-criminal behaviors by youth are grouped as status offenses. Actions such as truancy, running away or acting stubborn can thrust an adolescent into formal juvenile court actions for services and safety but also where their liberty may be at-risk.

  • Labeling 2015

    Spectrum of labels

    Victim Child welfare perspective
    Offender Public safety perspective
    • In need of aid, assistance, or care

    • In need of services

    • In need of supervision

    • Unruly

    • Status offender

  • Age boundaries 2016

    • Status offense jurisdiction: Up to 17 years old. (No lower age specified)
    • Delinquency jurisdiction: Up to 16 years old. (No lower age specified)
  • Reported data


Systems integration [9][10]

Youth involved in more than one system require special attention and coordination.  State and local policy-makers are increasingly sharing data concerning dual status youth and establishing a wide range of exciting coordination models.

  • Agency integration 2016

    Umbrella agency integration (separate division/offices)

  • State coordination 2014

    • Data sharing

    • Committees or advisory groups

    • Formal interagency MOUs

    • Informal interagency agreements

    • Statute and/or court rules

  • Reported data


Data sources

  1. ^ a b c d Easy Access to FBI Arrest Statistics
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Easy Access to Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement
  3. ^ Annual Statistical Report
    The Supreme Court of Missouri
  4. ^ Juvenile Court Statistics Report (annual)
    Department of Social Services, Division of Youth Services
  5. ^ Annual Report
    State of Missouri Public Defender Commission
  6. ^ Missouri DMC Data
    Missouri Juvenile Justice Association
  7. ^ Missouri Juvenile & Family Division Annual Report (CY2014)
    Supreme Court of Missouri Office of State Courts Administrator (OSCA)
  8. ^ Annual Judicial and Statistical Reports - Supplement
    The Missouri Judiciary
  9. ^ Annual Progress and Services Report
    Missouri Department of Social Services, Children's Division
  10. ^ Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act State Plan (CAPTA)
    Missouri Department of Social Services, Children's Division

State resources

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Policy (legal) research

Juvenile justice leadership

Other stakeholders

About this project

Juvenile Justice GPS (Geography, Policy, Practice, Statistics) is a project to develop a repository providing state policy makers and system stakeholders with a clear understanding of the juvenile justice landscape in the states.

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