Judicial selection, 2022

  • Elected

  • Appointed

  • Combination

Judicial specialization, 2022

  • All mixed case types

  • Mostly mixed

  • Mostly specialized

Caseload assignment, 2022

  • Mixed assignment methods

  • Individual discretion

  • Statute/State court rules

Judicial experience, training, and tools, 2022

  • Qualification Requirements

  • Required Annual Training

  • Required Risk/Need Assessments and Pre-Dispositional Reports

  • Juvenile Justice Bench Books

Courtroom shackling, 2015

No statewide restriction

Competency, 2015

Virginia has an article about juvenile competency in the juvenile code (of statutes), which aligns with the Dusky standard. Once an attorney is appointed or retained for the juvenile in a delinquency matter, the judge must order an evaluation by a licensed mental health professional qualified by training and experience in the forensic evaluation of juveniles when the there is cause to believe the juvenile is not competent. The Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services shall approve training and qualifications for evaluators, provide restoration services, and provide the court with a list of guidelines to assist with qualifying expert witnesses. Other than delinquency adjudication, the court can rule on other motions, etc. such as insufficient petition or other objections while the juvenile is incompetent. A finding of incompetency must not be based solely on age or developmental factors.

  • No juvenile standard

  • Juvenile standard is the adult standard

  • Juvenile justice standard exists

  • JJ standard includes developmental immaturity

About this project

Juvenile Justice GPS (Geography, Policy, Practice, Statistics) is a project to develop a repository providing state policy makers and system stakeholders with a clear understanding of the juvenile justice landscape in the states.

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