Waiver of counsel, 2014
A juvenile may waive his or her right to counsel as long as the waiver is knowingly made.
- Restrictions on waivers
- No restrictions
- Reflects laws as of the end of 2013 legislative sessions.
Timing of counsel, 2013
In West Virginia, an attorney for a juvenile can be appointed at the following points in the process: Custodial Questioning / Talk with Intake Officer; Detention Hearing / First Court Appearance / Arraignment; Once a Petition is Filed / Hearing on the Petition; All Stages of Proceedings / All Critical States of Proceedings.
Indigency requirements, 2013
Organized at the local level (county/judicial district) with varying state oversight
Organizer: Public Defender Services
(Additional detail concerning the organization and administration of juvenile defense is available in a state profile from the National Juvenile Defender Center.)
Indigency is not determined legislatively
In West Virginia, both juvenile and adult law provide the basis for juvenile indigency law and set the standard for determining indigency. In West Virginia, indigent defense training is available for appointed counsel. Indigency is judicially determined. Under certain circumstances, the Public Defender also makes the determination of indigency. Court can / must appoint attorney for juvenile if there is a conflict of interest between the juvenile and the parent. Specialized juvenile training available or required.
Courtroom shackling, 2015
No statewide restriction
Collateral consequences, 2014
By Juvenile Court Rule of Procedure, the court must not accept a juvenile's admission to a charge at any stage of the proceedings without first determining the following based on the juvenile's statements on the record or contained in a written document signed by the juvenile and counsel that the juvenile understands the court's power to make a disposition of the charges if they are admitted. These powers include:
- The court's dispositional authority includes the most severe step of placing the juvenile in an institution
- The court's jurisdiction over an adjudicated delinquent could be up to the juvenile's 21st birthday
- The court's power to modify a disposition, even repeatedly, until the termination of the court's jurisdiction.
The colloquy also covers the youth's understanding of the potential future consequences of the court's disposition. Specifically, the possible effect on future dispositions imposed as a juvenile and the possible effect on future sentences imposed as an adult.
Sex offender registration, 2015
Does not register
West Virginia Rules of Juvenile Procedure require that forensic evaluations are ordered in “a similar manner and in accordance with” procedures described in particular sections of the “Mentally Ill Persons” code of statutes to adjudicate juvenile competency. The sections align with the Dusky standard when considered broadly.
No juvenile standard
Juvenile standard is the adult standard
Juvenile justice standard exists
JJ standard includes developmental immaturity